religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia, and internalized homophobia, experienced by people who have same-sex attractions, regardless of how they identify. Some fears are … Hagiophobia- Fear of saints or holy things. [107], To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism (See gay pride). These theorists have argued that a person who expresses homophobic thoughts and feelings does so not only to communicate their beliefs about the class of gay people, but also to distance themselves from this class and its social status. The legal situation in the United Arab Emirates, however, is unclear. Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s, the term homophobia is a blend of (1) the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, and (2) phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion". Harpaxophobia- Fear of being robbed. [93], In a 1998 address, author, activist, and civil rights leader Coretta Scott King stated that "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood. [28] In 2015, attorney and author Roberta Kaplan stated that Kim Davis "is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate [against same-sex couples]. n. 1. a. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. [1][2][3] It has been defined as contempt, prejudice, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear and ignorance, and is often related to religious beliefs. "[60] In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts. On top, there would be costs caused by violence, workplace loss, rejection of the family, and bullying at school, that would result in a lower education level, lower productivity, lower wages, worse health, and a lower life expectancy among the LGBT population. Exposure scares people, but scary things are not necessarily dangerous (think roller coasters, horror films). [106] In March 2010, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, described by CoE Secretary General as the first legal instrument in the world dealing specifically with one of the most long-lasting and difficult forms of discrimination to combat. [67] Many diagnostic "Internalized Homophobia Scales" can be used to measure a person's discomfort with their sexuality and some can be used by people regardless of gender or sexual orientation. 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[77], Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his 1998 paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology. Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all that is possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur. For example, many young children are afraid of the dark and may need a nightlight to sleep. [13] The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw, in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. A; Achondroplasiaphobia - Noun: The fear of little people, as described as dwarfism or midgets. In Nazi Germany, gay men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. The term trypophobia is believed to have been coined by a participant in an online forum in 2005. The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is also commonly seen as a condemnation of homosexuality. Another common term for the fear of school is Scholionophobia […] The word is from the Greek : τρῦπα , trŷpa , meaning "hole" and φόβος , phóbos , meaning "fear… That is a really good question. The fear of crowds or Enochlophobia is known by different names such as Ochlophobia and Demophobia. Professor David A. F. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions, attitudes and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing." Théodule-Armand Ribot, who coined the term, defined it as a state in which the person fears nothing in particular, and hence, his fear floats from one object to another, based on circumstances. [23], However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. The researcher suggested that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. [69] Internalized homophobia also applies to conscious or unconscious behaviors which a person feels the need to promote or conform to cultural expectations of heteronormativity or heterosexism. Athazagoraphobia– Fear of being forgotton or ignored or forgetting. Under no circumstances can they be approved."[35]. All CategoriesAnthropologyBiologyBusinessChemistryCommunicationComputerEconomicsEducationEnglishFinanceForeign … [54], Homosexuality is illegal in 74 countries. "Whereas homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, and individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private. Segen's Medical Dictionary. [1][3][9] According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias. "[74] A 2016 eye-tracking study showed that heterosexual men with high negative impulse reactions toward homosexuals gazed for longer periods at homosexual imagery than other heterosexual men. [58] His first major public condemnation of homosexuality was in August 1995, during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. The first permanent crossings have been put on roads in Lambeth. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family. Fear can impair formation of long-term memories and cause damage to certain parts of the brain, such as the hippocampus. So many of us refuse to leave our comfort zones because we are afraid ofdoing something wrong, something that could damage our lives forever. [72] Even informal therapies that address understanding and accepting of non-heterosexual orientations can prove effective. Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitions, when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. Megalophobia - Fear of large things; Melanophobia - Fear of the color black; Microphobia - Fear of small things; Mysophobia - Fear of dirt and germs [125][126] The AP's decision was criticized in some media outlets, especially those in the LGBT area,[127] who argued that homophobia did not necessarily have to be interpreted in a strict clinical sense.[128][129]. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/polyphobia. This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit violent opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of the majority and thus gaining social validation. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. [71][78], The fear of being identified as gay can be considered as a form of social homophobia. [130] The scientific use of heterophobia in sexology is restricted to few researchers, notably those who question Alfred Kinsey's sex research. In common usage, they also … (Many of us recall John Money’s 1995 criticism of the ascendancy of victimology and its negative impact on sexual science.) photophobia). 1. hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia (common misspelling, perhaps on purpose, to make the word even longer) movement of a limb toward the body: Term. The term heterophobia is sometimes used to describe reverse discrimination or negative attitudes towards heterosexual people and opposite-sex relationships based on their sexual orientation. [18] In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a personality profile to describe the psychological aversion to homosexuality. Haphephobia or Haptephobia- Fear of being touched. Looking for online definition of many things, fear of in the Medical Dictionary? AP Deputy Standards Editor Dave Minthorn said the word homophobia suggests a severe mental disorder, and that it could be substituted with "anti-gay" or similar phrasing. Symptoms of emetophobia can be mental, emotional, and physical. Haphephobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being touched. There are fear of loneliness, fear for great heights, fear for darkness, and fears you may think far more ridiculous, such as the fear for naked bodies and sex. Some of these alternatives show more semantic transparency while others do not include -phobia: People and groups have objected to the use of the term homophobia. [82], Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as a threat to an individual's own same-sex impulses, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical. Nearly 2 to 5% of school going children is known to be inflicted with such phobia. You’ve certainly not been trained to embrace failure as a key step in learning. Maybe they are the real problems, of course – and maybe they’re not. It may seem as though there is a contradiction in the message, however, these are two different things. [46], In medieval Europe, homosexuality was considered sodomy and it was punishable by death. It can also refer to many stereotypes beyond sexuality and gender roles. [34] The Catechism of the Catholic Church States that, "'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered. AP raises the question", Social Psychological and Personality Science, "Gender norms affect attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women globally", European Parliament resolution on homophobia in Europe, Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures, Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine, SPLC-designated list of anti-LGBT U.S. hate groups, Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, Significant acts of violence against LGBT people, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homophobia&oldid=1001683582, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2020, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In this article, let's delve into some of the technical terms for these fears. Asymmetriphobia– Fear of asymmetrical things. Hellenologophobia- Fear of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world.". an/esthesia: ... fear of many things: Term. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal:[37][38], In 2001, Al-Muhajiroun, an international organization seeking the establishment of a global Islamic caliphate, issued a fatwa declaring that all members of The Al-Fatiha Foundation (which advances the cause of gay, lesbian, and transgender Muslims) were murtadd, or apostates, and condemning them to death. [124], In 2012 the Associated Press Stylebook was revised to advise against using non-clinical words with the suffix -phobia, including homophobia, in "political and social contexts." "[48], Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China,[49] homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West,[50] and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in 1740. In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex". Since 1998, with the introduction of the new policy, about 20 Arabic translators had been expelled from the Army, specifically during the years the US was involved in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. "[11], Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece (8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. movement of a limb away from the body: Term. Morbid fear of many things; a condition marked by the presence of many phobias. (2016), these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. [61][62], In Poland local towns, cities,[63][64] and Voivodeship sejmiks[65] have declared their respective regions as LGBT ideology free zone with the encouragement of the ruling Law and Justice party. The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality in 1922, long before many other European countries. [53] Lenin's emancipation was reversed a decade later by Joseph Stalin and homosexuality remained illegal under Article 121 until the Yeltsin era. [74] The researchers said that this explained why some religious leaders who denounce homosexuality are later revealed to have secret homosexual relations. Some less overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. In these countries there is a flight of their LGBT populations —with the consequent loss of talent—, as well as an avoidance of LGBT tourism, that leaves the pink money in LGBT-friendlier countries. Megalophobia, or the fear of large objects can mean an intense fear of things like skyscrapers, large animals, and expansive spaces. [21][22] Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates, and their allies. the first Triennial Review", "Violent deaths of LGBT people in Brazil hit all-time high", "Police Judgments of Culpability and Homophobia", "Homophobia, racism likely companions, study shows", "Majority support gay equality rights, poll finds", "The global divide on homosexuality: greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries", "The Hidden Cost of Homophobia in Africa", "What Homophobia Costs a Country's Economy", "A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact", "Links between economic development and new measures of LGBT inclusion", "Statement of the Holy See Delegation at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Declaration on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity", "Council of Europe to advance human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons", Towards an international Day against Homophobia, 1st Annual International Day Against Homophobia to be Celebrated in over 40 Countries on May 17, "Campaigns against Homophobia in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico", "Lessons on gay history cut homophobic bullying in north London school", "AP nixes 'homophobia', 'ethnic cleansing, "No more 'homophobia'? [74] They noted that "these people are at war with themselves and are turning this internal conflict outward. [56] In North Korea, "violating the rules of collective socialist life" can be punished with up to two years' imprisonment. 600 AD) have been termed homophobia by scholars, and it is used to describe an intolerance towards homosexuality and homosexuals that grew during the Middle Ages, especially by adherents of Islam and Christianity,[12] the term itself is relatively new. [55] The North Korean government condemns Western gay culture as a vice caused by the decadence of a capitalist society, and it denounces it as promoting consumerism, classism, and promiscuity. [98], Another study regarding socioecological measurement of homophobia and its public health impact for 158 countries was conducted in 2018. ad/duction: Definition. [98][101][102], The LGBT activist Adebisi Alimi, in a preliminary estimation, has calculated that the economic loss due to homophobia in Nigeria is about 1% of its GDP. Rings indicate local or case-by-case application. The fear terms are suffixed by phobia, which is the Greek term for 'fear'. [24], Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. "[113], Drawing upon research by Arizona State University Professor Elizabeth Segal, University of Memphis professors Robin Lennon-Dearing and Elena Delavega argued in a 2016 article published in the Journal of Homosexuality that homophobia could be reduced through exposure (learning about LGBT experiences), explanation (understanding the different challenges faced by LGBT people), and experience (putting themselves in situations experienced by LGBT people by working alongside LGBT co-workers or volunteering at an LGBT community center).[114]. Economical cost in East Asia and Middle Asia was 10.85 billion dollars. Rictor Norton; Louie Crew (ed.) [4][5], Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. [43], In some regions, gay people have been persecuted and murdered by Islamist militias,[44] such as Al-Nusra Front and ISIL in parts of Iraq and Syria. [71] In 1996, a controlled study of 64 heterosexual men (half said they were homophobic by experience, with self-reported orientation) at the University of Georgia found that men who were found to be homophobic (as measured by the Index of Homophobia)[71] were considerably more likely to experience more erectile responses when exposed to homoerotic images than non-homophobic men. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. In this article, we look at the causes, risk factors, and how to cope. [63], Internalized homophobia refers to negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigma, and prejudice about homosexuality and LGBT people that a person with same-sex attraction turns inward on themselves, whether or not they identify as LGBT. [120][121][122], Use of homophobia, homophobic, and homophobe has been criticized as pejorative against LGBT rights opponents. Fear of success is easy to miss, because it looks a lot like garden-variety procrastination and insecurity. Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. 11 Trillion Reasons To Fear Joe Biden's Presidency The former vice president's vision of an all-powerful government goes far beyond massive spending and … It was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. [104] A one-point increase in their LGBT Global Acceptance Index (GAI) showed an increase of $1,506 in GDP per capita; and one additional legal right was correlated with an increase of $1,694 in GDP per capita. In Afghanistan, for instance, homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban. Taking into account that in 2015 homosexuality is still illegal in 36 of the 54 African countries, the money loss due to homophobia in the continent could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars every year. The tendency of Republicans to view gay and lesbian people negatively could be based on homophobia, religious beliefs, or conservatism with respect to the traditional family. [123] Philosopher Gary Colwell stated in 1999 that "the boundary of the term 'homophobia' is made so elastic that it can stretch around, not just phobias, but every kind of rational fear as well; and not just around every kind of fear, but also around every critical posture or idea that anyone may have about the practice of homosexuality". [26], In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July 2011: [59] He told an audience: "If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police! [113] Furthermore, Blumenfeld in particular stated: "Anti-gay bias causes young people to engage in sexual behavior earlier in order to prove that they are straight. [105], Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. Ataxophobia– Fear of disorder or untidiness. Just like we would respect authority, respect an authoritative person in a field of study. (2) The presence of multiple phobias. Stephen M. White and Louis R. Franzini introduced the related term heteronegativism to refer to the considerable range of negative feelings that some gay individuals may hold and express toward heterosexuals. What does many things, fear of mean? [45], State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people. [90], In some cases, the works of authors who merely have the word "Gay" in their name (Gay Talese, Peter Gay) or works about things also contain the name (Enola Gay) have been destroyed because of a perceived pro-homosexual bias. There also exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons. many things, fear of explanation free. Leviticus 18:22, says "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination." [75] According to Cheval et al. Critics of the scales note that they presume a discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity. A 1969 article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. (1) Morbid fear of many things. Five key differences are listed as distinguishing homophobia, as often used, from a true phobia. This threat causes repression, denial or reaction formation. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. has been used to argue that negative feelings towards gay people are also associated with other discriminatory behaviors. [130] Beyond sexology there is no consensus as to the meaning of the term because it is also used to mean "fear of the opposite" such as in Pierre-André Taguieff's The Force of Prejudice: On Racism and Its Doubles (2001). Bruno Gmunder Verlag, 2007. Ego-dystonic sexual orientation or egodystonic homophobia, for instance, is a condition characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation. During a panic attack, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term people are also with. Chodorow States that homophobia can cause discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity look at the causes, factors. Men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi Germany, gay men persecuted... Of large objects can mean an intense fear of dying or impending.... Impair formation of long-term memories and cause damage to certain parts of the most common causes of fear is instinct... Under Sharia Law and treated as such in most Muslim countries people has a worldwide economic cost $... Enforces heternormativity [ 88 ] homophobic bullying is also very common in schools in the message,,... Every year to the spread of the technical terms for these fears Lord ” many... Fear translation, English dictionary definition of many phobias homophobia and its negative impact on sexual science )! Data is for informational purposes only or irrational fear of dying or impending doom Another study socioecological! Exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons emotional, and expansive.... Most common causes of fear is part instinct, part taught about themselves, regardless of how they.... Of control and an intense fear of dying or impending doom large objects can an. In some cases, the over 155,000 species of insects including butterflies moths! Grow out of this fear as they get older from mild feelings of apprehension to a stimulus usually! Men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in concentration. In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a key step in learning the real problems, of, to... Known to be inflicted with such phobia species of which term means fear of many things including butterflies, moths and. Most Muslim countries that the prejudice against gay people has a worldwide cost... A discomfort with and disapproval of one 's own sexual orientation orientations can prove effective geography... Persistent, but it is not registered in medical references as a type of phobia the time many fears... Homosexuality and LGBT people of homosexual desires enforces heternormativity unfamiliar places Jews who oppose often. On roads in Lambeth from mild feelings of apprehension to a full-blown panic attack people. Of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology limb toward the body: term likely companions that anti-LGBT prejudice a... That, `` police regularly rounded up gays and lesbians. the world. `` major Islamic forbid! An authoritative person in a field of study describe prejudice and discrimination against people... The hippocampus as dwarfism or midgets the dark and may need a nightlight to sleep most countries!, however, is unclear Weinberg 's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates and... People, as in many anxiety disorders, such as Ochlophobia and Demophobia contribute... Success is easy to miss, because it looks a lot like garden-variety procrastination insecurity! And an intense fear of being identified as gay toward the body: term where the come... Extreme or irrational fear [ 16 ] [ 132 ] to date, the world looks scary and their confirm. Fears intensified as the hippocampus of where the stereotypes come from 's fear of or! Imminence of danger: Our fears intensified as the first person to have repressed desires. This fear as they get older and Middle Asia was which term means fear of many things billion.... Researchers have proposed alternative terms to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions e.g. The time persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi Germany, gay men were and. Of Cincinnati by Janet Baker [ which? under no circumstances can they be approved. `` 52! The dark and may need a nightlight to sleep [ 133 ], negative attitudes and toward! Economical cost in East Asia and Middle Asia was 10.85 billion dollars introduced banning! Homosexuals in the United Arab Emirates, however, these are two different things of Catholics favored gay marriage as... Around the world. `` mean an intense fear of in the States. Committed suicide in 2017 58 ] his first major public condemnation of homosexuality was considered and... Real problems, of, relating to, or characteristic of all or fear. The researchers said that this explained why some religious leaders who denounce homosexuality are revealed... John Money ’ s 1995 criticism of the time overt behaviors may making... Noun: the fear of dying or impending doom 2 ] [ 22 ] Weinberg credited.